Jean-Nicolas Nissage Saget
Former President of Haiti
Jean-Nicolas Nissage Saget (1810–1880) succeeded Sylvain Salnave as President of Haiti in 1869. He was the first Haitian president to serve out his term of office (1869–1874) and retire voluntarily, although his retirement led to a renewal of the political turmoil between blacks and the country's mulatto elites.
Born in St. Marc (Haiti) 20 September 1810, Jean Nicolas Nissage Saget belonged to the family of the illustrious Jean Jacques Dessalines which he was the nephew. His grandmother was the sister Dessalines Polyphemus the founder of Haiti's independence and the mother of Nicolas Saget was born in 1761 in the colony of St. Domingue. Nicolas Saget became after independence, Clerk of the Government for Administrative Affairs of the State Notary Léogane then appointed by the state of Artibonite Petite Rivierre, Nicolas Saget had married Elisabeth Julien (a remarkable woman of packs ) after independence in 1804. They had five children, Nicius Saget (1806), Esteve Saget (1808), Nissage Saget (1810), Luce Adelaide Saget (1813) and Marie Francoise Saget (1815). The year 1818 proved fatal for the family. An outbreak of foot and took all the children in the household with the exception of Nissage Saget. By the time the whole country was crying President Alexandre Petion, who died of yellow fever as the children disappeared one after the other in that tragic year of 1818: Nicius died November 1818, Esteve Saget 20 November 1818, Marie Francoise Saget 24 November 1818, and Luce Saget Adelaide 12 December 1818 ... He was living a single survivor: Jean Nicolas Nissage Saget 8 years old!
The child attended the Lycee National de Port-au-Prince, after high school became a farmer on the land of his father in St Marc and Petite Rivière de l'Artibonite, and finally 20 years move towards the army under the government of President Jean Pierre Boyer. Its excellent performance and military allowed him to climb the ranks with ease to the point of view include the area of the colonels in 1840. Boyer gave him command of the military base in Leogane, a position he held until 1847 even with a title of brigadier general when President Faustin Soulouque came to power. The decision of the latter to abandon the Democratic Republican to declare himself Emperor created a rift between the two men.
Worse, the General Saget flatly refused to make the arrests and shootings of peaceful citizens on the pretext that they would be involved in conspiracy against the security of the state. The President has ordered Soulouque a military tribunal to convict and imprison Saget for insubordination. Nissage Saget was brought to St. Mark's chained and thrown into prison in front of his aged father, that life had not spoiled: he had witnessed the death of his second wife (Marie Adelaide Foam) and most of his children with the following and he also lost his third wife (Mary Magdalene foam), the sister of his wife Marie Adelaide, and their children. He was left to the world that General Nissage Saget (37) that Soulouque sentenced to prison for life. Abused and beaten to death every day because of his consistent refusal to shout "Vive Soulouque" it will end up being half deaf!
After the fall of Soulouque, General Nicolas Fabre Geffrard, his personal friend, proceeded to his release after 10 years in prison and reinstated in his post as commander of the military base in Leogane, granting the higher grade of General of Division . Saget took the opportunity to engage in the campaign seeking to run for a seat as senator of the Republic. His popularity allowed him to win these elections in the Artibonite. He proposed large openings Geffrard the President in Parliament. A popular uprising led by the young Sylvain Salnave Geffrard swept from power.
A drop-Nicolas Guillaume Fabre Geffrard (formerly Duke of Tabare) it instructed the Cabinet of Ministers to liquidate the current business and appointed as President of the Provisional Government, a journalist, champion of human rights , Exilien Heurtelou, who surrounded himself with civilians: JJ St Victor, Jean-Baptiste de Pradines Symphor Linstant, DARFEUIL Laborde and Septimus Rameau. From March 13 to 20 they will mobilize Parliament for the immediate election of a Speaker, before the arrival of the guerrilla leader Sylvain Salnave. On 20 March 1867 informed the Senate that "to avoid chaos," he named Jean Nicolas Nissage SAGET, Chairman of the Provisional Government
A few weeks later, May 2, 1867 became the revolutionary Salnave grant, weapons in hand and supported by thousands of insurgents, the supreme power, by placing Nissage Saget as his deputy, without even consulting him. Nissage Saget left Port au Prince and Cap Haitien took refuge in from the opposition. The regular troops of the North claimed to Nissage Saget and fought the forces of Salnave for one year. The North cut off from the rest of the country declared its independence from "the Republic of Salnave," keeping Nissage Saget as its President. Saget established the seat of his government in St Marc
On 3 May 1867 Sylvain Salnave proclaimed himself "Protector of the Republic" as he held until 16 June 1867 prior to accepting, after his election to Parliament, the more sober of "President of Haiti." Two years later, 16 November 1869 Sylvain Salnave decided to reinstate a monarchy in Haiti by becoming "President for Life" 16 November 1869. Nissage Saget entering an unnamed angry, put his army on a war footing.
In December 1869, the Northern troops with Saget in concert with the troops invaded the southern capital. Salnave lost the battle and was killed. Again the whole country cheered Nissage Jean Nicolas Saget, as President of the Provisional Junta that ruled the 27 December 1869 to 20 March 1870 with the assistants: Michael Domingo, Vice President, Nord Alexis, Dupont Jr., and Volmar Laporte members.
On 15 March 1870 the Parliament meets in full and gave a mandate as President of Haiti for four years Nissage Jean Nicolas Saget, who led the same time the Liberal Party (with the slogan "Power to the more capable "). Democracy finally had a name: Nissage Saget!
He died on 7 April 1880, aged 69.